- Este debate está vacío.
- 8 enero, 2022 a las 4:57 pm #34895leilaniloe242Invitado
<br><br>Chokur-taisha (Chogur, Shuker) (? – 1630) – Khoshut taisha, brother and rival of Baybagas-taisha.<br>Biography<br>The son of the Khoshut taisha Yadai Chinsan. His mother was Ahai-Khatun. After the death of her first husband, she remarried his cousin Hanai-noyon Khongor and bore him five sons, who were known in Oirat history as «five tigers„. The eldest of the five brothers was Baybagas-taisha.<br><br>In 1625, after the death of his brother Chin-taisha, who did not leave behind an heir, Chokur-taisha entered into a struggle with Baybagas. Chokur, as a brother, unauthorizedly seized the ulus of his deceased brother, numbering 1,000 wagons, and «his brother Baybagish did not give free rein„. In response, Baybagas-taisha gathered an army and by force the Chin-taisha ulus.<br><br>Chokur and Chin were half-brothers on the paternal side of Baybagas, while on the mother of Ahai-Khatun, all three of them were half-brothers.<br><br>The Derbet taishis Dalai-Batyr and Erke-Elden intervened in the conflict between the Khoshut taishs. With a thousand soldiers, they arrived in the Khoshut uluses and offered the opponents a compromise: to divide the Chin-tayshi ulus between Chokur and Baybagas. The desire to reconcile the Khoshuts was also prompted by the difficult foreign policy situation, «so that the Mughal people hear that there is a war between the Kolmyk tayshes, they did not come to them in war„. Derbet taishs offered Baybagas to return 500 wagons to Chokur. However, Chokur-taisha refused to reconcile with his brother and, together with his allies (Mergen-Temen, Kuyan, Tabytay, etc.), attacked Baybagas. At the head of the 30-thousandth army, Chokur-taisha attacked the camp of Baybagas. Derbet taisha Dalai-Batyr managed to warn Baybagas about the impending attack. In battles on the banks of the Irtysh, below the Yamash Lake, Baibagas-taisha was defeated, having lost most of his people and property.<br><br>To the aid of his ally Baybagas, the Chorossian taisha Khara-Hula arrived with a 10,000-strong army. Dalai-Batyr with derbets took a wait and see attitude: «Which of them, Chokur or Baybagish, will be strong, if he wants to and by the way„. Many eyewitnesses of those events were inclined to the general opinion: «between kolmak tayshi there will be a great war, and there will be no peace between them„.<br><br>The Tatars and Russian people who visited the Kalmyk uluses interpreted the results of the battle in different ways in their testimonies. According to some, Baybagas and Khara-Khula were defeated and fled beyond the Irtysh. According to other testimonies, Khara-Hula and Baybagas won, and Chokur fled for the Karakum Desert, where he was defeated by the Turkestans and withdrew to the Ufa volosts. A Russian prisoner who escaped from the Kho-Urluk ulus reported otherwise: «Urlyuk and Chokur are fighting, there are great battles„. Based on the fact that Chokur, according to the testimony of Mirza Alei, in the fall of 1625 roamed together with Dalai-Batyr and was one of the senior taishas, and Kho-Urlyuk retired to the north, where he was looking for places for roaming and entered into relations with by the Russian authorities, we can conclude that «the consignment„Chokura emerged victorious from the bloody strife; but during the struggle, misunderstandings arose between Chokur and Ho-Urluk, the latter was defeated and withdrew to the north under Tara.<br><br>After the victory, Chokur-taisha migrated to the upper reaches of the Emba River. Here the Hoshouts met the Altyul Nogai under the leadership of the Murz Sultanai and Shainek, who did not want to be a Russian citizen and moved away from Astrakhan. At the beginning of 1626, ambassadors from the Derbet taisha Dalai-Batyr and Mangit arrived to them on Embu with a proposal for peace and joint military actions against common enemies. Derbets roamed at that time on the Karakum and Badger Sands in the Aral region.<br><br>The Chokur group was soon attacked by the Kazakhs. In 1627 taisha Mergen-Temen with an ulus of 10 thousand people wandered near the possessions of the Kazakh khan Ishim and with him „made a peace». Soon, Ishim Khan with an army attacked Chokur’s supporters and «he beat many Kalmyk people and caught them in full„. Mergen-Temen with the remnants of his ulus people fled to the river. Syrdarya, and, according to the information, «those Kalmyk people are scarce in horses and animals„. The military setbacks sparked an interest in the Kalmyks’ weaker neighbor. Some advocated that «to go to war in the Nagai uluses, and the other half of them say that they should not go to war in the Nagai uluses„.<br><br>The Kalmyk tayshi, who roamed on the Emba, agreed with the Altyul Murza about a joint campaign against the big nogai. The Altyulsk Murzas finally fell out with the Russian authorities, captured and robbed the ambassador Yakov Bukharov. In the fall of 1628, the Altyul Murzas sent to the Embu Kalmyks a proposal for a joint raid on the big nogai. At the end of October, a 2,000-strong army of Kalmyks and Altyuls under the command of Taisha Dorzhi attacked the Nogai uluses of Biy Kanai and Nuraddin Mambet-Mirza Kara-Kelmetev, capturing captives and prey. The Astrakhan governors did not pursue the Kalmyks and only sent a detachment of archers to the Nogai uluses to protect them.<br><br>From the interrogation of two Tatars captured by the Kalmyks, the Russians received news that after the battle in 1625, Chokur-taisha with 10 thousand subjects migrated to the Karakum desert to Turkestan, and his son Dorzhi with his ulus settled on the river. Embe. After the defeat of the Chokur ulus by the Turkestans, he retreated to the north and settled in the vicinity of Ufa. In 1627, Chokur-taisha tried to get in touch with his brother Baybagas, „so that they can be among themselves in friendship and advice„. Baybagas went to meet Chokur and ordered his brother to join him.<br><br>In the summer of 1628, Chokur-taisha migrated to his son Dorzhi at the Urachin tract, 15 days from Emba. About 4 thousand ulus people were under the command of Dorja. Here they established relations with the Altyul Murzas, who provided the Kalmyks with «pleasing nomadic places and saiga fishing„. Another captive, a resident of Altyul Murzygeldey, reported that 2 thousand Kalmyks from the Taisha Mergen-Temenya, Batura, Ichen and 250 Altyul Tatars Murz Soltanai, Mamai, Urak, and Yusup took part in the last raid from Dorzhi. The gathering of their detachments took place in the area between the Yaik and Emba rivers. About 3-4 thousand Kalmyks remained on Emba with Chokur, and the taisha did not take active actions at the indicated time, since „the Mungal Kalmyks were taking over.»<br><br>In the fall of 1628, the information of a certain Anton, a Russian native from Kalmyk captivity, was recorded in Astrakhan. According to him, in 1625 Baybagas had more than 20 thousand ulus people, and Chokur had less than 20 thousand people. Before the quarrel, both brothers wandered for a long time „among themselves nearby and were on the council„. It is not known in whose favor the battle ended in 1625, but Chokur and his supporters went to the Bashkirs in the Ufa district. In 1626, Baybagas defeated Chokur as a result of a raid, and he had to flee to Central Asia to the lower reaches of the Syr Darya River. In the spring of 1628, a split occurred in the Chokur family, which led to the departure of Taisha from his eldest wife Mazika. The woman, along with her son Dorji and other small tayshes, including Dai-Batur, with more than a thousand of their people migrated to Embu. In the summer, Dorji’s younger brother, Taisha Danashir, with 20 people went to the Irtysh in order to find out the situation in the Oirat nomad camps, namely, the attitude of other Taisha to Chokur, „are there warriors on father evo from kovo„. Before the raid on the Nogai uluses of Taishi Khander, Dai-Batur and 10 other young taishas with Soltanai and 5 Mirzes „made an oath between themselves and went to the Nogai uluses in one war„.<br><br>In the summer of 1628, the Chokur grouping retreated beyond the river. Ishim to the upper reaches of the Tobol, where he raids the Yasy Tatars. In autumn Chokur-taisha with the ulus crosses the river. Embu. Chokur sent a Tatar to Astrakhan with a request to accept him „under the high royal hand» and allow him to wander along the Emba and Yaik. Chokur’s subjects feared an attack by the Khoshut taishi Gushi, who had 20 thousand soldiers, as well as the Kazakh prince Kuchuk Saltan, who had 10 thousand soldiers. Chokur and his associates had a total of 3-4 thousand ulus people, and 400 people roamed directly with Chokur. According to other sources, this group had 6 thousand soldiers, including 800 with firearms.<br><br>In the summer of 1629, 300 people from the Chokur ulus raided the Karatabynskaya volost of the Ufa district, where 14 Bashkirs were killed, and 60 were taken prisoner. In Ufa, the authorities mistakenly decided that the raid was made by the people of Dalai-Batyr. The Ufa governor Ivan Zhelyabovsky sent an embassy headed by A. Gladyshev to the Derbet uluses that roamed the Irtysh. But in the area of the Ishim River, the embassy was robbed by the Chokur soldiers.<br><br>In the fall of 1629, Dalai-Batyr and Gushi-khan organized a military campaign against the Chokur and Mergen-Temen grouping. The number of this expedition, according to the ambassadors, reached 40 thousand. The coalition also included the Khoshuts of Gushi Khan and the Torguts of Kho-Urluk. Previously, the Allies warned the Russian authorities about their intention to spend the winter with troops on the Uil River, assuring the return of the entire Bashkir polon, captured by Chokur.<br><br>Fearing the arrival of the allied Kalmyks, at the beginning of 1630 Chokur-taisha prudently moved from Emba to Yaik, where he took part in an attack on the Yaik Cossacks. In May 1630, the Samara governor Boris Saltykov reported to Moscow that the Yaik Cossacks with their were asking for a place to live in Samara because of the arrival of the Kalmyks. Small Cossack towns along Yaik, where a total of about 300 Cossacks were located, in the winter of 1629-1630 were attacked by the Kalmyks of Chokur. During the attack, many of the attacking Kalmyks were killed and wounded. The wounded Kalmyks captured during the battle reported that they were at war with «big Kalmyks„, And they came to roam the Yaik up to the Volga with an aim to capture Bolshoi Nogai. Later they all died of their wounds. During the siege of Cossack towns by the people of Chokur on April 22, they were unexpectedly struck from the rear by the allied Kalmyks. Most of Chokur’s people and his associates were killed or captured. The surviving supporters of Chokur fled down the Yaik to the sea, where in the area of the Salt Town they again fought with the local Cossacks. During the assault, the Kalmyks used wooden shields and firearms, but, nevertheless, were defeated again. It became difficult for the Cossacks to live on Yaik, since the Kalmyks who came to settle down on both banks of the river, occupying the roads and destroying all the Uchugs. Some of the Yaik Cossacks were forced to move to the Volga and Don by sea.<br><br>The captive Nogais Estein and Denai reported in Samara that they lived in the Taishi Hander ulus. Taishi Chokur, Mergen-Temen and Hander ruled their uluses on their own. In total, they had more than 4 thousand ulus people. From the fall of 1629 to the spring of 1630, three taishes wandered along the Yaik until the Dalai-Batyr and Gushi-khan with a 10,000-strong army came here and defeated them. The allied taisha from behind Emba moved to Yaik against Chokur. Denai learned from the captured Kalmyks that Hander was executed by the allied Kalmyks, who cut the belts from his back, Chokur was killed in battle, and the fate of Mergen-Temenya remained unknown.<br>