Volkovysk

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      genesis16c
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      <br><br>Volkovysk (Belarusian. Vaўkavysk) is a city located in the southwestern part of the Grodno region of Belarus on the Ross River, the administrative center of the Volkovysk region.<br>Story<br>Archaeological excavations carried out at the site of Volkovysk indicate that a Slavic settlement existed in this area already at the end of the 10th century.<br>Before the Mongol invasion<br>Traditionally, the year 1252 is considered the date of the first mention in written sources: in the Ipatiev Chronicle, it was mentioned in connection with the invasion of the Galician-Volyn princes Daniel and his brother Vasilko Romanovich into the Lithuanian lands of Mindaugas. Nevertheless, it used to be a fortified city on the border between the Balts and the Slavs. The territory of the modern Volkovysk region was inhabited by the tribes of the Dregovichi and Yatvingians.<br><br>Volkovysk was located on the heights: Swedish Mountain, Zamchishche and Muravelnik. According to data, the first settlement arose in the 10th century on Muravelnik, but at the beginning of the 11th century it was abandoned and moved to the Swedish Mountain, on which Volkovysk was located during its heyday. On the neighboring Zamchishche there was a roundabout city. Volkovysk lay on the path connecting the basins of the Dnieper, Western Bug and Neman: Volkovyya gave access to Ross, Ross to Neman, and Neman to the Baltic Sea. A waterway «from the Varangians to the Greeks» passed through Volkovysk, which connected the Black Sea with the Baltic through a system of rivers and portages. The city was inhabited by merchants and artisans who made weapons and military armor, sewed clothes and shoes, processed fur, made dishes, prepared wine, and brewed beer. Life in Detinets came to a standstill at the end of the 13th century, in the roundabout town – at the end of the 14th century. The population moved to the banks of the Volkovya River to the present place of the city.<br>Grand Duchy of Lithuania<br>At different times the city was under the influence of the Polotsk principality, the Galicia-Volyn land, from the end of the 13th century it finally became part of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. In 1254, under a peace treaty, Voyshelk handed over to Prince Roman Daniilovich „Novgorodok from Mindovg and from himself Voslonim and Volkovsk». In Volkovysk, Prince Gleb began to rule, recognizing himself as a vassal of the Grand Duke of Lithuania. The Ipatiev Chronicle reports on the participation of Gleb Volkovyssky in the campaign of the Galician-Volyn troops against the Yatvingians in 1256. In the late 1250s, the Lithuanian princes Voyshelk and Tovtivil captured and killed Roman. In response to this, Daniil Romanovich again undertook a campaign in Upper Ponemane: he captured Volkovysk and captured Prince Gleb. The chronicle does not report how this campaign ended. It is only known that Voishelk began to reign in Novogrudok again, and Volkovysk and Slonim remained part of Lithuania.<br><br>In 1258, the city was captured by the troops of the Galician prince Daniil Romanovich. In 1277, the troops of the Russian princes Mstislav Danilovich, Vladimir Vasilkovich and Yuri Lvovich, during a campaign against the Lithuanian princes, stopped their army for the night near Volkovysk. The last time Volkovysk was mentioned in the annals was in 1289, when the Lithuanian princes Budikid and Budyved transferred Volkovysk to Prince Mstislav Danilovich to maintain peaceful relations.<br><br>The Volkovysk banner took part in the Battle of Grunwald in 1410. In the same year (March 4), the city was captured and burned by the knights of the Teutonic Order, led by Master Ulrich von Jungingen. In 1430, Prince Vitovt built the Church of St. Nicholas in Volkovysk.<br><br>In 1503 the city received the Magdeburg Law. From 1507 to 1795 Volkovysk was part of the Novogrudok Voivodeship; was the center of the Volkovysk district. In 1513 there were 9 streets in Volkovysk. Since 1536 the Prechistenskaya Church has been mentioned, in 1598 the Jesuit Monastery was founded. There were times when Volkovysk was the venue for the congresses of senators and ambassadors of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania (GDL).<br>Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth<br>Since the 16th century Volkovysk became part of the Commonwealth. At the beginning of the 17th century, the inventory of the Volkovysk elder was made by the famous poet Jan Kazimir Pashkevich (d. 1635 or 1636), who worked in the treasury of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. The middle of the century went down in history as the „Bloody Flood». In 1654, a battle of the united troops of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania and Poland with the Swedes took place near Volkovysk, the city was occupied by the troops of Charles X. During the war between Russia and the Commonwealth (1654-1667), the city was twice captured by Russian troops and severely destroyed (1655 and 1662). The administrative center of the city was a castle on the Volkovya river not far from the road to Izabelin. By the end of the 18th century, there were only 362 houses in the city, where 2127 people lived.<br><br>In 1736, at the expense of E. Linovsky, a Jesuit mission was established in the city. A Jesuit school was opened in 1747. In the second half of the 18th century in Volkovysk there were monasteries of public relations and mariovitoks. In 1794, during the uprising of T. Kostyushki, the city was in the hands of the rebels.<br>Russian empire<br>As a result of three sections of the Commonwealth (1772, 1793, 1795), the lands of modern Belarus became part of the Russian Empire. In 1812 Volkovysk hosted the of the 2nd Western Army under the command of P.I. During the war between Napoleonic France and the Russian Empire, Volkovysk was under French occupation and was destroyed.<br><br>In 1860, the city had 492 houses, 3472 residents, 2 schools, a church, a church, 7 houses of worship, a synagogue, 2 mills, a hospital, a brick factory, 58 shops.<br><br>In 1885, the Baranovichi – Bialystok railway passed through Volkovysk, along which 26 million poods of cargo were transported a year. This stimulated the development of industry, and by 1891 there were 19 factories and industrial enterprises in the city. In 1897 the population of the city was 10 323 inhabitants. In the 19th century, the city became a major railway station and there were 22 enterprises in it. During the revolution of 1905-1907 in Volkovysk and its environs there were demonstrations of workers, strikes of villagers, unrest of recruits and soldiers.<br><br>During the First World War, the city was the headquarters of the commander-in-chief of the North-Western Front. In the fall of 1915, the city was occupied by German troops.<br>Interwar period<br>On January 1, 1919, in accordance with the resolution of the 1st Congress of the CP (b) B, Volkovysk became part of the Byelorussian SSR.<br><br>In February 1919, the city was occupied by Polish troops, but in July 1920 the city was occupied by the troops of the Red Army. In September 1920, Volkovysk was again occupied by Polish troops. According to the Treaty (1921), the city became part of Poland (II Rzeczpospolita) and was the center of a povet in the Bialystok Voivodeship. In the city worked: a foundry, 2 brick factories, 2 sawmills. A cement plant began operating near the city, which was considered one of the most powerful enterprises in Western Belarus. Since 1939 Volkovysk became part of the BSSR, since January 1940 – the center of the region.<br>The Great Patriotic War<br>From the first days of the Great Patriotic War, fierce battles unfolded in the city area. 06/28/1941 the city was occupied by the German fascist invaders. A concentration camp was set up in the city, in which more than 20,000 people died, and a ghetto, in which more than 10,000 Jews were killed. In February 1942, a regional anti-fascist organization began to operate in Volkovysk. «In 1942, 4146 Jews, residents of Volkovysk, were shot in the Porokhovnya tract. On July 7, 1943, the village of Shaulichi with its 366 inhabitants was completely burned down. According to generalized data during the years of occupation in the Volkovysk region, 9664 people were shot, 4 were hanged. At the same time, 1101 residents of the region died on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War. „…<br><br>On July 14, 1944, the city was liberated by units of the 2nd Belorussian Front during the Bialystok operation, 11 units were given the honorary title „Volkovysk».<br><br>Volkovysk land suffered greatly from the German occupation. 9664 people were shot in the region, 4 were hanged. At the same time, 1101 residents of the region died on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War.<br>Population<br>According to the data of the First All-Russian Census of 1897, the population of the city was 10 323 people (5982 women and 4341 men), of which 5528 were Jews, 2716 Orthodox and 1943 Roman Catholic.<br>Economy<br>There are 29 industrial enterprises in the Volkovysk region, of which 8 are state-owned, 4 joint-stock companies, one cooperative enterprise, 12 small and . The largest enterprises of the Volkovyssk region are: OJSC Krasnoselskstroymaterialy, OJSC Volkovyssk meat-packing plant, OJSC Bellakt, OJSC VolMet. The products of these enterprises are widely known not only in Belarus, but also abroad.<br><br>The largest food industry enterprises located in the city are Bellakt OJSC (manufacturer of dry baby food and dairy products) and Volkovysk Meat Processing Plant OJSC (by-products, sausages, dumplings and semi-finished meat products). Mechanical engineering is represented by Volkovyssk Machine-Building Plant OJSC (manufacturer of foundry cup mixers and abrasive mixers, construction, press-forging, agricultural and household equipment) and VolMet OJSC (manufacturer of locks). State Enterprise „Eleven» is engaged in the production of furniture, door and window blocks, workwear and other products.<br><br> Agriculture of the Volkovysk region is represented by 5 agricultural cooperatives, 8 unitary enterprises of various forms of ownership and a poultry farm. They are assigned 66,886 hectares of agricultural land.<br><br>The construction industry is represented by 15 organizations.<br><br>Correctional colony No. 11 (male, high security) is located in the city.<br>Transport<br>The Volkovysk transport system includes two railway stations Volkovysk-Gorod and Volkovysk-Tsentralny, a locomotive depot, a track distance of the Baranovichi branch of BelZhD, a bus station, Bus depot No. 4, Volkovysk branch of the Avtotrans No. 9 private unitary enterprise of the Grodno Regional Consumer Union, Volkovyskspetsavtotrans OJSC …<br>Culture and education<br>The sphere of culture consists of the regional House of Culture, the House of Culture of railway workers, the regional methodological center, the military history museum named after V.I. P.I.Bagration, a craft center, a school of arts, five library institutions, a cinema „Yunost», 7 secondary schools (including secondary school No. 8 in Volkovysk with Polish language of instruction), 2 gymnasiums, 2 colleges: agricultural and pedagogical.<br><br>In 2016, the Volkovysk Military History Museum was visited by 16.8 thousand people (according to this indicator, the museum ranks 7th in the Grodno region).<br><br>For many years the folk groups „Inspiration», „Vyaselle», „Yutshenka», „Medunitsa», „Pyashchota», the People’s Orchestra of Russian Folk Instruments, the Honored Theater of Drama and Comedy „Slavutich» have been known outside the region for many years.<br><br>In 2004, the republican festival of agricultural workers „Dozhinki 2004″ was held in the city of Volkovysk.<br><br>In 2005 the city of Volkovysk celebrated its millennium «Volkovysk is 1000 years old».<br>Sport<br>The city has 2 specialized children’s and youth schools of the Olympic reserve, 2 children’s and youth sports schools of trade unions, and sports and recreation centers.<br><br>In Volkovysk there is a motocross track, where two stages of the European Championship in the class of motorcycles up to 250 cm³ and a stage of the World Championship on motorcycles with sidecars were held. Open championships of the Republic of Belarus are regularly held in various classes of motorcycles.<br><br>Chess coach, grandmaster Prischepa Vladislav Vladimirovich.<br>Symbolism<br>The new coat of arms and flag of the city of Volkovysk and the Volkovysk region were approved by decision No. 225 of the Volkovysk regional executive committee on April 12, 2001.<br>sightsCatholic Church of St. Wenceslas, 1848Military History Museum named after P. BagrationOrthodox Church of St. Nicholas, 1874.Archaeological settlements „Muravelnik» and „Swedish Mountain» on the southeastern outskirts of the city.Ordinary residential buildings of the second half of the XIX – the first three decades of the XX century, located on the site of st. Zholudeva, near the railway station.Cemetery of Polish soldiersCemeteries are Jewish, Catholic and Orthodox. On the last – the grave of Lieutenant General Yakov Davydovich Yuzefovich (1872-1929), a member of the White movement (born and died in Volkovysk)Twin cities Siedlce (Poland) Vladimir (Russia)

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